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关于加强合作应对气候危机的阳光之乡声明

发布时间:2023-11-15  来源:生态环境部  字体大小[ ]

关于加强合作应对气候危机的阳光之乡声明

  重温习近平主席和约瑟夫·拜登总统在印尼巴厘岛会晤,中美双方重申致力于合作并与其他国家共同努力应对气候危机。为此,中国气候变化事务特使解振华和美国总统气候问题特使约翰·克里于2023年7月16—19日在北京、11月4—7日在加利福尼亚阳光之乡举行会谈,并发表以下声明:

  一、中美两国回顾、重申并致力于进一步有效和持续实施2021年4月中美应对气候危机联合声明和2021年11月中美关于在21世纪20年代强化气候行动的格拉斯哥联合宣言。

  二、中美两国认识到,气候危机对世界各国的影响日益显著。面对政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)第六次评估报告等现有最佳科学发现的警示,两国致力于有效实施联合国气候变化框架公约和巴黎协定,体现公平以及共同但有区别的责任和各自能力的原则,考虑不同国情,根据巴黎协定第二条所述将全球平均气温上升控制在低于2°C之内并努力限制在1.5°C之内,包括努力保持1.5°C可实现,达成该协定的目的。

  三、中美两国致力于有效实施巴黎协定及其决定,包括格拉斯哥气候协议和沙姆沙伊赫实施计划。两国强调,公约第28次缔约方大会(COP28)对于在这关键十年及其后有意义地应对气候危机至关重要。两国认识到,两国无论是在国内应对措施还是共同合作行动方面对于落实巴黎协定各项目标、推动多边主义均具有重要作用。为了人类今世后代,两国将合作并与公约和巴黎协定其他缔约方一道直面当今世界最为严峻的挑战之一。

  四、中美两国决定启动“21世纪20年代强化气候行动工作组”,开展对话与合作,以加速21世纪20年代的具体气候行动。工作组将聚焦联合声明和联合宣言中确定的合作领域,包括能源转型、甲烷、循环经济和资源利用效率、低碳可持续省/州和城市、毁林以及双方同意的其他主题。工作组将就控制和减少排放的政策、措施和技术进行信息交流,分享各自经验,识别和实施合作项目,并评估联合声明、联合宣言和本次声明的实施情况。工作组由两国气候变化特使共同领导,两国相关部委和政府机构的官员以适当方式参加。

  五、中美两国将于COP28之前及其后在工作组下重点加速以下具体行动,特别是切实可行和实实在在的合作计划和项目。

能源转型

  六、在21世纪20年代这关键十年,两国支持二十国集团领导人宣言所述努力争取到2030年全球可再生能源装机增至三倍,并计划从现在到2030年在2020年水平上充分加快两国可再生能源部署,以加快煤油气发电替代,从而可预期电力行业排放在达峰后实现有意义的绝对减少。

  七、双方同意重启中美能效论坛,以深化工业、建筑、交通和设备等重点领域节能降碳政策交流。

  八、中美两国计划重启双边能源政策和战略对话,就共同商定的议题开展交流,推动二轨活动,加强务实合作。

  九、两国争取到2030年各自推进至少5个工业和能源等领域碳捕集利用和封存(CCUS)大规模合作项目。

  甲烷和其他非二氧化碳温室气体排放

  十、两国将落实各自国家甲烷行动计划并计划视情细化进一步措施。

  十一、两国将立即启动技术性工作组合作,开展政策对话、技术解决方案交流和能力建设,在各自国家甲烷行动计划基础上制定各自纳入其2035年国家自主贡献的甲烷减排行动/目标,并支持两国各自甲烷减/控排取得进展。

  十二、两国计划就各自管理氧化亚氮排放的措施开展合作。

  十三、两国计划在基加利修正案下共同努力逐步减少氢氟碳化物,并致力于确保生产的所有制冷设备采用有力度的最低能效标准。

  循环经济和资源利用效率

  十四、认识到循环经济发展和资源利用效率对于应对气候危机的重要作用,两国相关政府部门计划尽快就这些议题开展一次政策对话,并支持双方企业、高校、研究机构开展交流讨论和合作项目。

  十五、中美两国决心终结塑料污染并将与各方一道制订一项具有法律约束力的塑料污染(包括海洋环境塑料污染)国际文书。

  地方合作

  十六、中美两国将支持省、州和城市在电力、交通、建筑和废弃物等领域开展气候合作。双方将推动地方政府、企业、智库和其他相关方积极参与合作。两国将通过商定的定期会议,进行政策对话、最佳实践分享、信息交流并促进项目合作。

  十七、中美两国计划于2024年上半年举办地方气候行动高级别活动。

  十八、双方欢迎并赞赏两国已开展的地方合作,并鼓励省、州和城市开展务实气候合作。

  森林

  十九、双方承诺进一步努力,以到2030年停止和扭转森林减少,包括通过规管和政策手段全面落实并有效执行各自禁止非法进口的法律。双方计划包括在工作组下讨论交流如何增进努力,以加强这一承诺的落实。

  温室气体和大气污染物减排协同

  二十、两国计划合作推动相关政策措施和技术部署,以加强温室气体与氮氧化物、挥发性有机物和其他对流层臭氧前体物等大气污染物排放的协同控制。

  2035年国家自主贡献

  二十一、重申国家自主贡献由国家自主决定的性质,回顾巴黎协定第四条第4款,两国2035年国家自主贡献将是全经济范围,包括所有温室气体,所体现的减排符合全球平均气温上升控制在低于2°C之内并努力限制在1.5°C之内的巴黎温控目标。

  COP28

  二十二、中美两国将会同阿拉伯联合酋长国邀请各国参加在COP28期间举行的“甲烷和非二氧化碳温室气体峰会”。

  二十三、中美两国将积极参与巴黎协定首次全球盘点,这是缔约方对力度、落实和合作进行回头看的重要机会,以符合巴黎协定温控目标,即将全球平均气温上升控制在低于2°C之内并努力限制在1.5°C之内,并与缔约方决心保持1.5°C温控目标可实现相一致。

  二十四、两国致力于共同努力并与其他缔约方一道,以协商一致方式达成全球盘点决定。两国认为,该决定:

  ——应体现在实现巴黎协定目标方面取得的实质性积极进展,包括该协定促进了缔约方和非缔约方利益攸关方的行动,以及世界在温升轨迹方面相比没有协定明显处于较好的状况;

  ——应考虑公平,并参考现有最佳科学,包括最新 IPCC 报告;

  ——应在各个主题领域保持平衡,包括回顾性和响应性要素,并与巴黎协定设计保持一致;

  ——应体现实现巴黎协定目标需要结合不同国情,在行动和支持方面大幅增强雄心和加强落实;

  ——应在能源转型(可再生能源、煤/油/气)、森林等碳汇、甲烷等非二氧化碳气体,以及低碳技术等方面发出信号;

  ——认识到国家自主贡献的国家自主决定性质并回顾巴黎协定第四条第4款,应鼓励2035年全经济范围国家自主贡献涵盖所有温室气体;

  ——应体现适应至关重要,并辅以一项强有力的决定,以提出一个有力度的全球适应目标框架——加速适应,包括制定目标/指标以加强适应有效性;为发展中国家缔约方提供早期预警系统;加强关键领域(例如粮食、水、基础设施、健康和生态系统)适应努力;

  ——应注意到发达国家预期2023年实现1000亿美元气候资金目标,重申敦促发达国家缔约方将其提供的适应资金至少翻倍;期待COP29通过新的集体量化资金目标;并使资金流动符合巴黎协定目标;

  ——应欢迎并赞赏过渡委员会关于建立解决损失和损害问题的资金安排,包括为此设立一项基金的建议;

  ——应强调国际合作的重要作用,包括气候危机的全球性要求尽可能广泛的合作,而这种合作是实现有力度的减缓行动和气候韧性发展的关键推动因素。

  二十五、中美两国致力于进一步加强对话、协作努力,支持主席国阿联酋成功举办COP28。

The Sunnylands Statement on Enhancing Cooperation to

Address the Climate Crisis

Recalling the meeting between President Xi Jinping and President Joseph R. Biden in Bali, Indonesia, China and the United States reaffirm their commitment to work jointly and together with other countries to address the climate crisis. In this regard, China Special Envoy for Climate Change Xie Zhenhua and U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry met in Beijing from 16 to 19 July 2023 and at Sunnylands, California, from 4 to 7 November 2023 and released the followings:

1.China and the United States recall, reaffirm, and commit to further the effective and sustained implementation of the April 2021 China-U.S. Joint Statement Addressing the Climate Crisis and the November 2021 China-U.S. Joint Glasgow Declaration on Enhancing Climate Action in the 2020s.

2.China and the United States recognize that the climate crisis has increasingly affected countries around the world. Alarmed by the best available scientific findings including the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, China and the United States remain committed to the effective implementation of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, reflecting equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances, to achieve the Paris Agreement’s aim in accordance with its Article 2 to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 degrees C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees C, including efforts to keep 1.5 degrees C within reach.

3.China and the United States remain committed to the effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and decisions thereunder, including the Glasgow Climate Pact and the Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan. Both countries stress the importance of COP 28 in responding meaningfully to the climate crisis during this critical decade and beyond. They are aware of the important role they play in terms of both national responses and working together cooperatively to address the goals of the Paris Agreement and promote multilateralism. They will work together and with other Parties to the Convention and the Paris Agreement to rise up to one of the greatest challenges of our time for present and future generations of humankind.

4.China and the United States decide to operationalize the Working Group on Enhancing Climate Action in the 2020s, to engage in dialogue and cooperation to accelerate concrete climate actions in the 2020s. The Working Group will focus on the areas of cooperation that have been identified in the Joint Statement and the Joint Declaration, including on energy transition, methane, circular economy and resource efficiency, low-carbon and sustainable provinces/states & cities, and deforestation, as well as any agreed topics. The Working Group will carry out information exchanges on policies, measures, and technologies for controlling and reducing emissions, share their respective experiences, identify and implement cooperative projects, and evaluate the implementation of the Joint Statement, the Joint Declaration, and this Statement. The Working Group is co-led by the two special envoys on climate change, with the appropriate participation of officials from the relevant ministries and government agencies of the two countries.

5.China and the United States will, on the road to COP 28 and beyond, accelerate, inter alia, the following concrete actions, including practical and tangible collaborative programs and projects under the Working Group.

Energy Transition

6.Both countries support the G20 Leaders Declaration to pursue efforts to triple renewable energy capacity globally by 2030 and intend to sufficiently accelerate renewable energy deployment in their respective economies through 2030 from 2020 levels so as to accelerate the substitution for coal, oil and gas generation, and thereby anticipate post-peaking meaningful absolute power sector emission reduction, in this critical decade of the 2020s.

7.Both sides agree to restart the China-U.S. Energy Efficiency Forum to deepen policy exchanges on energy-saving and carbon-reducing solutions in key areas including industry, buildings, transportation, and equipment.

8.China and the United States intend to recommence bilateral dialogues on energy policies and strategies, carry out exchanges on mutually agreed topics, and facilitate track II activities to enhance pragmatic cooperation.

9.The two countries aim to advance at least 5 large-scale cooperative CCUS projects each by 2030, including from industrial and energy sources. 

Methane and Other Non-CO2 GHG Emissions

10.The two countries will implement their respective national methane action plans and intend to elaborate further measures, as appropriate.

11.The two countries will immediately initiate technical working group cooperation on policy dialogue, technical solutions exchanges, and capacity building, building on their respective national methane action plans to develop their respective methane reduction actions/targets for inclusion in their 2035 NDCs and support each country’s methane reduction/control progress.

12.The two countries intend to cooperate on respective measures to manage nitrous oxide emissions.

13.The two countries intend to work together under the Kigali Amendment to phase down HFCs and commit to ensure application of ambitious minimum efficiency standards for all cooling equipment manufactured.

Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency

14.Recognizing the importance of developing circular economy and resource efficiency in addressing the climate crisis, relevant government agencies of the two countries intend to conduct a policy dialogue on these topics as soon as possible and support enterprises, universities, and research institutions of both sides to engage in discussions and collaborative projects.

15.China and the United States are determined to end plastic pollution and will work together and with others to develop an international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution, including the marine environment.

Subnational Cooperation

16.China and the United States will support climate cooperation among states, provinces, and cities with regard to areas including, inter alia, the power, transportation, buildings, and waste sectors. Both sides will facilitate subnational governments, enterprises, think tanks, and other stakeholders to actively participate in the cooperation. The two countries will meet periodically, as agreed, for policy dialogue, best practices sharing, information exchange, and to facilitate cooperative programs.

17.China and the United States intend to hold a high-level event on subnational climate action in the first half of 2024.

18.Both sides welcome with appreciation existing subnational cooperation between the two countries and encourage states, provinces, and cities to promote practical climate cooperation.

Forests

19.Both sides commit to advance efforts to halt and reverse forest loss by 2030, including by fully implementing through regulation and policy, and effectively enforcing, their respective laws on banning illegal imports. They intend to engage in discussions and exchanges, including under the Working Group, on ways to improve efforts to strengthen implementation of this commitment.
GHG and Air Pollutant Reduction Synergy

20.Both countries intend to cooperate in promoting relevant policies and measures and the deployment of technologies to enhance synergy of controlling GHG emissions and air pollutants, including NOX, VOCs, and other tropospheric ozone precursors.

2035 NDCs

21.Reaffirming the nationally determined nature of NDCs, and recalling Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement, both countries’ 2035 NDCs will be economy-wide, include all greenhouse gases, and reflect the reductions aligned with the Paris temperature goal of holding the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees C and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees C.
COP 28

22.China and the United States, with the United Arab Emirates, invite countries to a Methane and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases Summit at COP 28.

23.China and the United States look forward to the first Global Stocktake under the Paris Agreement, which is a vital opportunity for the Parties to reflect on ambition, implementation, and cooperation, in line with the Paris temperature goal to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 degrees C and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees C, and the Parties’ resolve to keep a 1.5 degree C limit on temperature rise within reach.

24.Both countries are committed to working with each other and with other Parties to adopt a consensus Global Stocktake decision. In the view of both countries, the decision:

•should reflect that there has been substantial positive progress toward achieving the objectives of the Paris Agreement, including that the Agreement has catalyzed action by both Parties and non-Party stakeholders and that the world is considerably better off in terms of its temperature trajectory than it would have been in the absence of the Agreement;

•should take account of equity and be informed by the best available science, including the most recent IPCC reports;

•should be balanced across thematic areas, include both retrospective and responsive elements, and be consistent with the design of the Paris Agreement;

•should reflect that substantially more ambition and implementation on action and support will be needed to achieve the Paris Agreement’s goals, recognizing different national circumstances;

•should send signals with respect to the energy transition (renewable energy, coal/oil/gas), carbon sinks including forests, non-CO2 gases including methane, and low-carbon technologies, etc.;

•recognizing the nationally determined nature of NDCs and recalling Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement, should encourage economy-wide 2035 NDCs covering all greenhouse gases;

•should reflect the critical importance of adaptation and be accompanied by a robust decision that delivers an ambitious framework for the global goal on adaptation — one that accelerates adaptation, including developing targets/indicators to enhance adaptation effectiveness; delivering early warning systems for developing country Parties; and strengthening adaptation efforts in key areas (e.g. food, water, infrastructure, health, and ecosystems);

•should note the expectation of the developed countries that the $100b goal will be met in 2023, reaffirm the urging of developed country Parties to at least double their provision of adaptation finance; anticipate the adoption by COP 29 of the new collective quantified goal; and make finance flows consistent with the Paris Agreement goals;

•should welcome with appreciation the recommendations of the Transitional Committee with respect to establishing funding arrangements to address loss and damage, including the establishment of a fund; and

•should emphasize the important role of international cooperation, including that the global nature of the climate crisis calls for the widest possible cooperation and that such cooperation is a critical enabler for achieving ambitious mitigation action and climate-resilient development.

25.China and the United States are committed to further their dialogues, efforts, and collaboration to support the UAE Presidency for the success of COP 28.

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